Friday, July 17, 2020

Prognosis and Diagnosis in Mental Health

Prognosis and Diagnosis in Mental Health Basics Print Prognosis and Diagnosis in Mental Health By Kathryn Rudlin, LCSW Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 04, 2019 nullplus / Getty Images More in Psychology Basics Psychotherapy Student Resources History and Biographies Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming In This Article Table of Contents Expand Why a Prognosis Is Important Prognosis vs. Diagnosis Factors That Affect Prognosis Mental Health in Teens Treating Mental Illnesses in Teens Who Gets Mental Illnesses? View All Back To Top The term prognosis refers to making an educated guess about the expected outcome of mental health treatment, a prediction of the process a teen may have to go through in order to heal, and the extent of healing expected to take place. Prognosis is a medical term used in treatment settings based on a medical model, or when a teen is being treated for a mental health disorder, such as depression  or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Why a Prognosis Is Important A prognosis is based on a number of factors to include the type of problem your teen is struggling with, the duration of the problem, your teens personal strengths and weaknesses, and the availability of support systems. Parents may hear this term used in the early stages of therapy or entry into a treatment program. For example, a psychiatrist might say the prognosis for a specific teen suffering from depression is good since the teen is motivated to stick with a program of medication and psychotherapy and has strong family support. Discussing the anticipated prognosis for a troubled teen is a way to look realistically at the question most parents worry about: Will my teen get better? Ask about the prognosis for your teen if this information is not initially provided. Prognosis vs. Diagnosis People often confuse the terms prognosis and  diagnosis. The difference between the two is that while a prognosis is a guess as to the outcome of treatment, a diagnosis  is actually identifying the problem and giving it a name, such as depression  or obsessive-compulsive disorder.   Factors That Affect Prognosis Different factors can affect the prognosis of each individual. These factors include: AgeGenderMedical and/or family historyHow the disease or disorder is presentingResponse to treatmentParticular symptoms and how long they have been presentWhether or not there are other illnesses or conditions presentWhat treatment or treatments are being used Mental Health in Teens Because the body and the mind are so intricately connected, mental illness can take a toll on your teens physical health too and the two can play off of each other. Thats why its so important to get your teen help if you think there is a problem. Early intervention gives your teen the best chance of recovery. Treating Mental Illnesses in Teens Fortunately, mental illnesses are very treatable and manageable with medication, psychotherapy, education and/or other resources. Its important to work closely with your mental health professional to create the best individual treatment plan for your teen. Who Gets Mental Illnesses? Mental illnesses can affect anyone of any age, gender, race, religion, income level or ethnicity. It is estimated that 1 in 5 children under the age of 18 has a mental illness.   Parents, Take Care of Yourselves Too If you are the parent of a teen with some sort of mental illness, you know how difficult it can be to remain supportive, positive and to have time to meet your own needs. Like the demonstration given on airplanes about putting your own oxygen mask on first so you can then help others, you need to make sure you are taking care of yourself so that you can help your teen to the best of your ability. Consider joining a support group for parents or getting individual therapy for yourself. Make sure you get out to do fun activities on a regular basis. Treat yourself kindly.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Tragedy Of Dante s Inferno - 954 Words

Dante’s Inferno is an amazing nonfiction piece that was meant to vindicate many lessons to its readers. As well as, depict what Dante believed hell to be, and express some of his concerns with divine justice, and the appropriate punishments for the crimes committed. While reading this epic piece it spoke in many ways, and it addresses similar issues that are still prevalent in current culture. This religious allegory seems to focus on punishments, and how it should equal up to the wrong that was done. It brings to mind the rule of Contrapasso. According to John Kameen, Contrapasso is one of the few rules in Dante’s Inferno. It is the one â€Å"law of nature† that applies to hell, stating that for every sinner’s crime there must be an equal and fitting punishment (Kameen37). This piece seems to relay that punishment should be strict and straight forward. Also, this piece could easily diffuse much of controversy surrounding the death penalty in today’s culture. Therefore, Contrapasso is the one law of Dante’s Inferno that would greatly decrease the issues currently surrounding the death penalty, if applied to current sentencing for crimes worthy of the capital punishment. Firstly, Capital punishment is a legal sentence to die for criminal behavior. Therefore, trying to give a great explanation of the effect it would have culturally is an enormous task. However, introducing Contrapasso as a law could possibly be the water that put out the flames of confusion engulfing the issuesShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of Dante s Inferno1526 Words   |  7 Pagesof this full entanglement is out of reach these many years later. The book that left the resounding feelings of excitement and sorrow was Dante’s Inferno. Written at a time in his life filled with grief and displacement, with the feeling of betrayal looming over him, a glimpse of understanding starts to illuminate the first strands of his web. Dante draws from a vast amount of sources to compile his poem. The combined influence of the Jewish concept of Sheol, the Christian idea of a lake of fireRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Dante s Inferno1016 Words   |  5 PagesDante’s Inferno is heavily based on the social and political downgrade of Rome in the 14th century. The poet recognized that civilians in his own city-state were idolizing corrupt politicians and giving into their sinful temptations. Political and religious stability were crumbling and as a result order disintegrated, many started to claim to be the Pope, people were idolizing wealth and corruption, and a majority of relationships were stemmed from adultery. As a result, throughout his cantos, DanteRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Dante s Inferno1439 Words   |  6 PagesDante’s Inferno’s central theme is God sees all of the sins people partake in their lives. Once you enter hell you will be punished for those sins according to the severity. You will endu re a punishment that matches the sin you committed. Dante’s Inferno is a very imaginative way to look at crime and punishment. The story is made up of three different parts told by three people. A pilgrim is lead on journey by Virgil, Beatrice, and Saint Bernard. Virgil takes him through Hell and the Purgatory. HellRead MoreThe Divine Comedy By Dante Alighieri873 Words   |  4 PagesDivine Comedy† is an epic poem written by Dante Alighieri. He wrote the epic sometime between 1308 and 1321, the year he died. It is considered one of the greatest works of world literature. He wrote â€Å"The Divine Comedy† while he was exiled from Florence, Italy (Bishops 182). â€Å"The Divine Comedy† recounts Dante’s idea of the afterlife. It is written in a first person perspective and follows Dante’s journey through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven. At the time Dante wrote the Divine Comedy, Italy was goingRead MoreThe Divine Comedy : Inferno Ira2454 Words   |  10 PagesThe Divine Comedy: Inferno IRA by Dante Alighieri Summary: (Exposition) Midway through his life, Dante finds himself lost from his true way, wandering through a dark and savage forest. He finds a mountain, after which a divine light shines upon him, encouraging him to go up it. But he is stopped by three malicious creatures and is only saved when a man finds him. The man identifies himself to Dante as Virgil (a great Roman poet), and reveals that his lost love Beatrice (and two others) has wishedRead MoreThe Hollow Men And The Love Song Of J. Alfred Prufrock Essay1444 Words   |  6 PagesT. S. Eliot’s modernist style critiques the lifestyle of modern society during the Roaring Twenties. He expresses the false values found in society that affects their perception of themselves, and cause them to lose direction in their lives. Through his poems â€Å"The Hollow Men† and â€Å"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock† Eliot explores the modern underlying issues of both society and man as being lost, stagnant, and aimless. He a dvocates for change through de-romanticizing the human condition via theRead MoreThe Allegory Of The Cave Proposed By Plato1595 Words   |  7 Pageshelp of a philosopher to go through the long path, they can go out of the cave and see the outside world. The slaves are considered as the average person, a person whose life is driven by desire, and follows what the society says, like a person that’ s blind and has lived all his/her life in shadows. This person cannot free itself because he/she does not know that there they are looking at shadows and not true objects. The cave masters are the people who have more education or more power, but use themRead More Francescas Style in Canto V of Dantes Inferno Essay5060 Words   |  21 PagesFrancescas Style in Canto V of Dantes Inferno Canto V of Dantes Inferno begins and ends with confession. The frightening image of Minos who  «confesses » the damned sinners and then hurls them down to their eternal punishment contrasts with the almost familial image of Francesca and Dante, who confess to one another. In a real sense confession seems to be defective or inadequate in Hell. The huddled masses who declare their sins to Minos do so because they are compelled to declareRead MoreFire And Ice By Robert Frost1349 Words   |  6 Pagesbeing desire or passion and ice being hatred and deceit. Although this poem is one of his shortest poems with only nine lines, it is also one of the most famous works that he has ever created. The poem Fire and Ice was written in the early 1920 s and was published in 1923. World War I was the biggest war of its time and was meant to be the war that ended all wars. In the year 1914, an Austrian Archduke named Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This incident sparked manyRead MoreHomosexuality in Victorian and Elizabethan Literature.6608 Words   |  27 Pagesthough it has weakened, it still affects people in todays society. It even dates back to the Renaissance days, and is presented by Dante Aligheri is his Inferno. And for this reason doth the smallest round/ Seal with its signet Sodom[...]†. Sodom is a city known for crude sexual acts, which is where sodomy gets its name from. Since the Inferno is a world created by Dante, he believes that sodomy is a sin that is worse than suicide, and decides to put it just before the entrance to the Eighth Circle

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Von Neumann architecture, or the Von Neumann model, stems...

Von Neumann architecture, or the Von Neumann model, stems from a 1945 computer architecture description by the physicist, mathematician, and polymath John von Neumann and others. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter , external mass storage, subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a memory to store both data and commands, also an input and output mechanisms. The meaning of the term has grown to mean a stored-program computer in which a command fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is commonly referred to as the Von†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ Add the span or extent of the instruction to the program counter. †¢ Interpret the instruction using the control unit. Meanwhile, The control unit commands the rest of the computer to perform some type of operation. The instruction may change the address in the program counter, thus permitting repetitive operations. The instruction may also change the program counter . this is done only if some arithmetic condition is true, thus giving the effect of a decision, which can be calculated to any degree of complexity by the preceding arithmetic and logic. †¢ Once all of this is done, it is programed to go back to step 1. The design of The Von Neumann architecture is a little more straightforward than the more modern Harvard architecture. It too is a stored-program system; nevertheless, it has one dedicated set of address and data buses for reading data from and imprinting data to memory, and an additional set of address and data buses for obtaining instructions. Von Neumann devoted most of his Preliminary Discussion to the design of the arithmetic unit. The details of this are the least interesting part of the paper from the standpoint of the organization of his computer, and its influence on future developments. The capabilities of the arithmetic unit were limited to the performance of some arbitrary subset of the possible arithmetic operations. He observes that theShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pageslittle significance. But there is little agreement over when the twentieth century c.e. arrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008) when one could quite plausibly argue that a new era had begun. A compelling case can be made for viewing the decades of the global scramble for colonies after 1870 as a predictableRead MoreThe Importance of Demography to Development11868 Words   |  48 Pagesorganization and development of human social life. The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes. Most sociologists work in one or more specialties or subfields. The meaning of the word comes from the suffix -logy which means study of, derived from Greek, and the stem socio- which is from the Latin word socius, meaning member, friend, or ally, thus referring to people in generalRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 Pagesof the first to call the British audit profession to account with his questioning of ‘who shall audit the auditors?’ The subsequent institutional response has most likely gained as much from the likes of Professors Harold Edey, Bryan Carsberg, Ken Peasnell, Geoffrey Whittington, and  ´ David Tweedie as it has from the eminence grise of the profession itself. And even in auditing, significant roles have been played by Professors Peter Bird, David Flint, and Peter Moizer amongst others. Indeed it isRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesdilemmas. The book engages in an imaginative way with a wealth of organizational concepts and theories as well as pro vides insightful examples from the practical world of organizations. The authors’ sound scholarship and transparent style of writing set the book apart, making it an ingenious read which invites reflexivity, criticalness and plurality of opinion from the audience. This is a book that will become a classic in organization studies. Mihaela L. Kelemen, Professor of Management Studies, Keele

Child Discipline Free Essays

Forms of Discipline: What is best for the child? Children are like flowers, if well taken care of they will bloom. If ignored or tortured, they will wither and die. Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Discipline or any similar topic only for you Order Now Today, many people have this notion that physical abuse is in no way a solution to helping children discern between right and wrong. Since generations children have been taught the art of discipline through physical punishment. Often this approach to disciplining has resulted in two outcomes, one is where the child becomes more tolerant and is willing to adhere to what he/she has been told, or the other which more often results in children developing a sense of anguish and desire to revolt. Physical punishment often destroys the psychological mindset of a child and can scar his/her childhood, resulting in them to grow up to be particularly irritable and frustrated individuals. Over the decades we have seen that fewer and fewer parents are resorting to this sort of method of violence to discipline their children. However contradictory to all that has been stated, I believe that sometimes parents are caught in a situation when children cross all boundaries of discipline and spanking is the only effective solution. Therefore, it is imperative to do so. Nonetheless, before spanking is even taken into consideration; all the other non-violent forms of discipline should be used. If none work then finally the act of spanking can be justifiable. The act of spanking is not merely a punishment that should be conducted on a whim by parents; there must be reasoning and evidence of a clear sort of rebellion or revolt that requires such treatment. However in such a situation I am of the firm belief that dialogue or discussion is not the option that will placate the issue in the long run. I feel this approach may only last for a short period of time until the child feels that his or her parents have forgotten the issue and will once again go back on the same path. A spanking advocate says, â€Å"I don’t think it hurt me, in fact, it helped me in the long-run. It made me look at consequences, things kids don’t normally think about. I was always told, ‘Listen, or you’ll have to feel it. I listened when I was told, and now, I’m grateful I was raised like that because I feel now I am much more respectful to my peers and my elders especially. † Thus, the act of a spanking induces a fear, a fear that is necessary for children to experience, as it is this fear that rings in a child’s mind when he or she is on the verge of pursuing a mistake he or she is aware is wrong. When a child is no ncompliant, I agree that a spanking is desirable by any parent, however spanking works best when followed by a serene conversation with the child about why was he/she spanked. There are many parents today who do not know how to use this disciplinary action on their children. They usually end up excising too much or too little control over their child without giving them a suitable reasoning. A ‘Fact sheet from the Rocky Mountain Family council’ states that â€Å"pairing reasoning with a spanking in the toddler years delayed misbehavior longer than did either reasoning or spanking alone. Reasoning linked with a spank was also more effective compared with other discipline methods. Talking with the child about what behavior is expected and why-with the potential of a follow-up spank-worked best. Hence, Spank a child only when necessary and in conjunction with reasoning and other forms of discipline. Reality is a question of perspective; the further you get from it the more plausible it seems. Being raised in a traditional Indian family, I have been exposed to all forms of disciplines depending on the situation. As a child, I was spanked when I d id something wrong. Being spanked taught me respect and kept me in line. The way my parents disciplined me is an accepted method of punishment back home. It is only today that I understand the importance of what they did. Just as my parents did not have the intention to physically abuse me, the entire concept of spanking too is not directed towards hurting the child, it is more of a lesson taught to make the child realize his/her mistake. Hence, there needs to be a limit to how much parents can spank their kids. If the act is carried out on a daily basis, there are higher chances of the kid behaving inappropriately behind closed doors. At the end of the day these kids get so frustrated of being spanked everyday that they end up doing unnecessary things such as lying, cheating, bullying other people behind their parents backs. Research by Murray Straus, a Co-Director at the Family Research Laboratory at the University of Durham,  indicated that â€Å"frequent spanking (three or more times a week) of children 6 to 9 years old, tracked over a period of two years, increased a child’s antisocial behaviour, measured in activities like cheating, bullying, or lying†. Hence, it is important for the parents to learn which behaviours deserve a spanking. For instance, spilling water, making noise, wetting-pants are normal behaviours all children tend to pick. They do not need to be spanked as these are all age-appropriate behaviours. A key concept of discipline is to identify the behaviour that is typical for the age of the child. Based on the behaviour, parents can then take appropriate actions. For instance, Lisa Berlin, research scientist at the Centre for Child and Family Policy at Duke University says, â€Å"We’re talking about infants and toddlers, and I think that just, cognitively, they just don’t understand enough about right or wrong or punishment to benefit from being spanked,†Ã‚  As Berlin states, it is pointless to spank an infant, however as children grow older and begin to understand the severity of the punishment, a spanking is desirable. Today, there is a common misconception that spanking is a form of child abuse. Some parents are actually afraid to discipline their own children using the same method used for their own upbringing. Who is correct in the notion of right and wrong discipline? Is there such a thing as a correct way to spank your child? In my opinion, there is. So, my objective is to show that there is a fine line between the two terms Spanking and Child abuse. A Cambridge Dictionary states that Child Abuse occurs â€Å"when adults intentionally treat children in a cruel or violent way. On the other hand, Spanking in the same dictionary means â€Å"to hit a child with the hand, usually several times on the bottom as a punishment. † In this way, the line between the two can be drawn where too much spanking results in bruises and scars on the child. Therefore, parents should not spank their children when they are angry themselves as the spank would turn out to be an unintentional smack. When this o ccurs, parents tend to accidently take out their frustration on the child. Primarily, this is when Spanking, a form of discipline, starts drifting towards the entire concept of ‘child abuse’. However, this misconception has led to many unwanted situations where parents have been sent to jail by their own children. In a general conversation with a waiter at IHOP in Charlottesville, I got to know that he spanked his child twice due to confidential reasons and the child sent his dad, Greg, to the court. In this way, mild spanking is an essential tool to bring the child on the right path of success. A pro-spanker, Leeanne, mother to three children says â€Å"I gave a spanking (more like a weak handed swatting) on the butt when my children were small a couple of times†¦. after that, just a warning and a look was all they needed to keep in line, because they knew they didn’t want one. All three of my children have told me that they are ashamed of their generation and each have thanked me, at one point or another for those little spanks. (Again, I don’t mean pain†¦ just attention getting and disapproval of their behaviour). †Ã‚  As claimed by her, I too believe that spanking causes no harm on the child. It is just the way the parent does it. Love your children more than you spank them. At the end of the day, that is all what a child needs in life. Other than that, I also carried out my own survey for this essay where I asked fifteen friends their opinion on spanking. Each of them said that they have been spanked in at least one circumstance. They all agreed that it is proper to discipline in this way. It is only now after coming to UVA and being so successful they have realized the importance of the punishments their parents used to give them. When I asked them at what occasions did they get spanked, one said, â€Å"I have done a lot of silly things in life that my parents have disapproved, they believe that not all negative behaviours require a spanking; but spanking is their number one choice when all other methods of discipline fail. † Life is all about making decisions, taking risks and then finally facing their consequences. Hence, their parents took the risk and landed on the safe end where their children are reaching the pinnacle of success. As stated, spanking shouldn’t be the only form of discipline used on children. Parents need to take into account all the other forms as well to teach their children right from wrong. Parents can inculcate discipline in their child by showing discontent to the unsuitable behaviour of the child. This usually has a lasting effect as they know that if they do it again their parents will be disappointed, which is usually harder to deal with. This type of punishment only gives you more of a guilt feeling and it remains till you are in good terms with your parents again. When parents give that silent treatment, it becomes very hard to live in the same house where parents are not in talking terms with their kids. Scolding is another form which is widely used all over the world. If it becomes an everyday situation then it may lessen the effect on the child. The child may start considering this as a normal act for parents to shout at him/her and will start ignoring them. The aim of the parents to teach the kid a lesson and make sure he/she does not make the same mistake again would fail. However, if scolding is the only process used then parents need to also praise their children when they do something good as well. In this way, scolding and  praising should be balanced so that children understand the entire concept properly. Another very effective form of discipline is ‘Time-Out’. This is mainly used on young children. â€Å"A  time-out  involves temporarily separating a child from an environment where inappropriate behaviour has occurred, and is intended to give an over-excited child time to calm down. †Ã‚  This method can be very effectual if carried out appropriately. Too much of something doesn’t attain the goal it is looking for. Similarly, excessive scolding or use of time-out does not have the same effect on the child as a one or two time would. For example, a child throwing a tantrum can be put in time-out for him/her to calm down. After that, parents need to make sure they kindly explain the kid that whatever he/she did is not acceptable in society. Even in this case, age matters as a one year old cannot be asked to sit and listen to a long lecture as they do not have long attention spans. An American mother stated Once the child gets older and as they start experiencing the real world, parents tend teach them a lesson by withholding privileges. When they reach a certain age i. e. when they are in grade 5-6, they start to differentiate precisely between family and friends. Sometimes as they enter the teenage world, they begin to value friends over family. At this point, parents know that their kids are growing and might go on the wrong path if not taught a lesson at the right time. Hence, some of the techniques such as ‘if they come home later than expected then take away what they love the most’ are used. For example, if you come home late, you will not be allowed to watch TV for two days. This is usually used once the child is old enough to understand. In this way, as they grow older they learn how to make thoughtful decisions. A balanced approach should be used in order to raise the child in the right manner. By ‘balanced’, I mean that parents should spank their children only to a certain extent primarily depending on their age and the type of mistake committed by the child. Spanking along with other forms of discipline should be used in order to make the child realize his/her mistakes in life. How to cite Child Discipline, Papers Child Discipline Free Essays Child abuse is the physical injury of a child inflicted by a parent which ranges from superficial bruises, broken bones, burns, serious internal injuries and in some cases, death (Prevent Child Abuse America). Child abuse is a topic that causes rage in many discussions throughout the country because it is outrageous actions against innocent children. Many parents question whether discipline can become child abuse. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Discipline or any similar topic only for you Order Now Bell Hooks is an educated woman, feminist, and writer who has dedicated her life to teaching people about civil rights that every human being deserves. She wrote an essay in which she addresses her personal view on the way children should not be hit under any circumstances, because it neglects love; according to her, love and abuse cannot coexist. However, it is unfair to claim that a slap on the hand is considered abuse, and that if parents commit this type of action, they do not love their child. There is a huge difference between physical punishment and child abuse. A child needs to learn right from wrong, and when the child’s actions turn out of control, it is acceptable to spank or hit them in the hand. As long as the hitting stays to a minimum degree, physical punishment is not child abuse. â€Å"No one can rightfully claim to be loving when behaving abusively† (Hooks, 29). This is a quote from Hooks’ essay in which she declared that if a parent is hitting their child, then they are showing no love towards the child. I disagree with Hooks because she uses the word abuse in such a negative form throughout her whole essay. What exactly does â€Å"behaving abusively† mean? If a person sees the words, â€Å"behaving abusively† the person might be thinking a child was hit in the face and now the child has a black eye, which is abuse. However, Hooks’ takes the definition of â€Å"behaving abusively† as any type of hitting even if it’s the least amount of pain like a slap on the hand, which is not abuse. Hooks gives the idea that both of these actions are the same, yet they are not. When parents’ are hitting their children and giving them bruises, it is child abuse; when parents’ teach their children a lesson by slapping them on the hand, it is simply discipline. Physical discipline is permitted to a certain level; physical punishment can be a reasonable slap on the hand or a spank. Physical discipline has worked for many parents and it is their choice whether they want to use this type of discipline. Primarily, if parents want to teach their children to behave and not be out of control, they can use the effective ways of physical punishment. Nevertheless, there is a fine line between physical punishment and abuse; parents must know when that fine line ends because hitting could turn into abuse. â€Å"When her son misbehaved she clamped down on his flesh, pinching him until he got the message† (Hooks, 28-29). In this quote Bell hooks tries to manipulate the reader’s emotions. The words â€Å"clamped down on his flesh†, really gives a vulgar image, and she is successful in creating good imagery to give her point of view. At this point I was almost manipulated into believing that any small type of hitting, or in this case, pinching, would be considered child abuse. My emotions were conflicting with my logical interpretation because she uses language that is visual. On the counterpoint, she did not provide a story behind her quote. The reader did not know why the mother was pinching her son. His behavior might have been way out of control that it left the mother with no other choice. I interpret Bell Hooks’ essay as being biased for the obvious reason that she has no children. She claims in her essay that she is â€Å"a second parenting figure†, (Hooks, 32) but there is no doubt that only a parent can really determine when their child might need physical discipline. Hooks might feel like a second parent figure, but she is able to walk away from any situation the child is in, whereas the mother or father has to deal with the problem and cannot walk away and ignore it. One important counterargument that Hooks left out of her essay was evidence from an adult who experienced physical punishment, and did not have any negative effect onto his or her adult life. She only provides sources from adults who experienced child abuse; one example includes famous writer Bob Shelby, who was abused as a child. Hooks’ sources contain only people who dealt with child abuse, not physical discipline, like a slap on the hand. The simple act of hitting or spanking a child does not determine the love parents feel for their child. Growing up I was physically punished by my mother. The physical punishment involved spanking or a slap in the hand or arm; but it was never to the point where I was in so much pain or the hitting left me a bruise. Since I was the age of three, if I misbehaved I would receive some sort of physical punishment. I truly believe the physical punishment helped me because it made me think about my bad actions, and once I was hit, I no longer misbehaved. It taught me to be a better person. I have absolutely no doubt that my parents’ love me and I know they did it for my own good. The fact that I was physically punished as a child does not mean my parents stopped loving me for a second; I never questioned the love I felt from my parents. I do not think the physical punishment I received could be at all considered abuse. I have also had the experience to witness children whom their parents have not enforced physical punishment, and they are out of control. Children who did not receive physical punishment were most likely to misbehave and throw tantrums. These children felt like they could do whatever they please and felt like they were in control of the parent. It is very important that parents do not let their children push them around because the parents need to be in control. Hooks’ main argument is that children are denied their civil rights when parents are hitting them; she claims that parents do not love their children if they are abusing them, in her case abusing them is if a parent slaps them in the hand. She claims that if parents are hitting their children, they are negating love, concluding that love and abuse cannot coexist. I agree that love and child abuse cannot coexist because if parents are constantly hitting their children to the point where it becomes routine and for no reason, then they are negating love towards their children. However, if parents choose to spank their children only when they misbehave, it is a form of discipline and it does not mean that the parents do not love their children. It just means that they love their children enough to want what is best for them by teaching them a lesson. Children are able to learn from their mistakes and they will no longer act the wrong way. The word â€Å"discipline† has different meaning to different parents. In some parts of the world, and in different cultures, it is common for parents to hit their children in various ways. Some parents leave bruises and scars, but if parents take it this far, then they are committing abuse. On the other hand, to some parents discipline could be a simple time out without the need of physical punishment. Time out works for some parents but for others it might not. Parenting is crucial because raising children is very hard; I believe parents are not taking their children’s civil rights when they choose to use a minimal amount of physical punishment when the child needs it. There is a fine line between physical punishment and abuse; however, there is a huge difference. Hitting or spanking is not child abuse; it is a method of discipline that children need to learn when they are growing up. It is unfair to declare that when parents choose to raise their children by using physical punishment, they are negating love. Most parents who hit their children when they misbehave, love their children and are only hitting them to discipline them. Parents do not want their children growing up in the wrong path and making the wrong choices. If the parent lets their child do whatever he or she wants, then the child will feel in control of the parent. When the parent does not enforce punishment, the child will not listen, and this could lead them in the wrong direction. According to Bell hooks, love and abuse cannot coexist. However, it is unjustified to say that a slap on the hand is considered abuse, and that if parents are hitting their children, they are negating love. Ultimately, when parents choose to use physical punishment in order to enforce discipline, they are not denying love; they are simply teaching the difference between right and wrong. How to cite Child Discipline, Essay examples Child Discipline Free Essays GOALS OF EFFECTIVE DISCIPLINE Discipline is the structure that helps the child fit into the real world happily and effectively. It is the foundation for the development of the child’s own self-discipline. Effective and positive discipline is about teaching and guiding children, not just forcing them to obey. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Discipline or any similar topic only for you Order Now As with all other interventions aimed at pointing out unacceptable behavior, the child should always know that the parent loves and supports him or her. Trust between parent and child should be maintained and constantly built upon. Parenting is the task of raising children and providing them with the necessary material and emotional care to further their physical, emotional, cognitive and social development. Disciplining children is one of the most important yet difficult responsibilities of parenting, and there are no shortcuts. The physician must stress that teaching about limits and acceptable behavior takes time and a great deal of energy. The hurried pace of today’s society can be an obstacle to effective discipline. The goal of effective discipline is to foster acceptable and appropriate behaviour in the child and to raise emotionally mature adults. A disciplined person is able to postpone pleasure, is considerate of the needs of others, is assertive without being aggressive or hostile, and can tolerate discomfort when necessary. The foundation of effective discipline is respect. The child should be able to respect the parent’s authority and also the rights of others. Inconsistency in applying discipline will not help a child respect his or her parents. Harsh discipline such as humiliation (verbal abuse, shouting, name-calling) will also make it hard for the child to respect and trust the parent. Thus, effective discipline means discipline applied with mutual respect in a firm, fair, reasonable and consistent way. The goal is to protect the child from danger, help the child learn self-discipline, and develop a healthy conscience and an internal sense of responsibility and control. It should also instill values. One of the major obstacles to achieving these goals is inconsistency, which will confuse any child, regardless of developmental age. It can be particularly hard for parents to be consistent role models. Telling children to â€Å"Do as I say, but not as I do† does not achieve effective discipline. Parental disagreements about child-rearing techniques, as well as cultural differences between parents, often result in inconsistent disciplining methods. The physician needs to be mindful of these challenges and suggest steps that parents can take to resolve these differences (1). It is important that in teaching effective discipline, physicians do not impose their own agendas on the families they counsel. A balanced, objective view should be used to provide resources, and the goal should be to remain objective. This means using principles supported by academic, peer-reviewed literature. This is particularly important when dealing with controversial issues such as disciplinary spanking. MEANINGS: Discipline means obedience to a superior authority. Accepting the norms of the family, society, the commands of elders and obeying them is also discipline. Discipline means accepting punishments for violation. Discipline also means training of mind and character, developing self-control and the habit of obedience. In the entire universe, there is an order and discipline. The stars, the planets, the earth on which we live, the moon and the sun we see, move according to a system of discipline. We can see that plants, insects, birds and animals too observe discipline in their lives, only man who has a thinking mind finds it difficult to observe discipline. Discipline could be divided into two broad categories, external and internal. External discipline is that which is imposed by outside authority. It is often linked with authority and force. Discipline in the army is one such. Soldiers do not have a say in it except implicit obedience. As Tennyson says â€Å"Theirs not to make reply. There’s not to reason why, theirs nut to do and die†. A soldier in a war field cannot ask for reasons. He has to obey commands; otherwise, the war is lost. Our ancient educational system believed in enforcing discipline by force. They used to say, if you spare the rod you will spoil the child. But that view is not correct. It will produce only negative results. That is why discipline has taken a new shape in schools and colleges now. It is call self-discipline. It is discipline by acceptance, not by imposition. We live in a democracy. Democracy is based on the will of majority of its citizens. It has to be accepted and obeyed. Otherwise democracy loses its meaning and leads to anarchy. Family customs and traditions, laws of the society, and moral and spiritual laws of the religion are all to be obeyed. That is discipline. Discipline demands obedience to commands fro leaders, respect for women, devotion to god etc. Though discipline starts at home, there is much more need for it in schools. Schools are nursing places for various virtues and values. Discipline in the classroom, on the playground and elsewhere in the school is all important. Force has no place in student discipline. Teachers are to be first disciplined, so one, who cannot control oneself, cannot control others. Students emulate teachers in all ways. It is more so in the matter of discipline. They observe discipline by acceptance not by force. Some argue that discipline limits freedom and that also kills the man’s initiative. This is a wrong view. Indiscipline cannot bring order of growth. Self-discipline or discipline by acceptance is self-control. One controls his emotions and desires and gives room to listen to other’s points of views. Man has many desires and impulses. If they are allowed free play without discipline, it will end in chaos. Nature and society are best disciplinarians. Violate their laws, and you are in for punishment. Put your finger in fire. It burns, no matter who you are. There we learn discipline by experience. That is why Gandhi has rightly said that discipline is learning in adversity. It is therefore necessary that, if you wish to achieve anything enduring in life, you have to be first disciplined in life. Lack of discipline is like a ship without a rudder. How to cite Child Discipline, Papers

Child Discipline Free Essays

Forms of Discipline: What is best for the child? Children are like flowers, if well taken care of they will bloom. If ignored or tortured, they will wither and die. Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Discipline or any similar topic only for you Order Now Today, many people have this notion that physical abuse is in no way a solution to helping children discern between right and wrong. Since generations children have been taught the art of discipline through physical punishment. Often this approach to disciplining has resulted in two outcomes, one is where the child becomes more tolerant and is willing to adhere to what he/she has been told, or the other which more often results in children developing a sense of anguish and desire to revolt. Physical punishment often destroys the psychological mindset of a child and can scar his/her childhood, resulting in them to grow up to be particularly irritable and frustrated individuals. Over the decades we have seen that fewer and fewer parents are resorting to this sort of method of violence to discipline their children. However contradictory to all that has been stated, I believe that sometimes parents are caught in a situation when children cross all boundaries of discipline and spanking is the only effective solution. Therefore, it is imperative to do so. Nonetheless, before spanking is even taken into consideration; all the other non-violent forms of discipline should be used. If none work then finally the act of spanking can be justifiable. The act of spanking is not merely a punishment that should be conducted on a whim by parents; there must be reasoning and evidence of a clear sort of rebellion or revolt that requires such treatment. However in such a situation I am of the firm belief that dialogue or discussion is not the option that will placate the issue in the long run. I feel this approach may only last for a short period of time until the child feels that his or her parents have forgotten the issue and will once again go back on the same path. A spanking advocate says, â€Å"I don’t think it hurt me, in fact, it helped me in the long-run. It made me look at consequences, things kids don’t normally think about. I was always told, ‘Listen, or you’ll have to feel it. I listened when I was told, and now, I’m grateful I was raised like that because I feel now I am much more respectful to my peers and my elders especially. † Thus, the act of a spanking induces a fear, a fear that is necessary for children to experience, as it is this fear that rings in a child’s mind when he or she is on the verge of pursuing a mistake he or she is aware is wrong. When a child is no ncompliant, I agree that a spanking is desirable by any parent, however spanking works best when followed by a serene conversation with the child about why was he/she spanked. There are many parents today who do not know how to use this disciplinary action on their children. They usually end up excising too much or too little control over their child without giving them a suitable reasoning. A ‘Fact sheet from the Rocky Mountain Family council’ states that â€Å"pairing reasoning with a spanking in the toddler years delayed misbehavior longer than did either reasoning or spanking alone. Reasoning linked with a spank was also more effective compared with other discipline methods. Talking with the child about what behavior is expected and why-with the potential of a follow-up spank-worked best. Hence, Spank a child only when necessary and in conjunction with reasoning and other forms of discipline. Reality is a question of perspective; the further you get from it the more plausible it seems. Being raised in a traditional Indian family, I have been exposed to all forms of disciplines depending on the situation. As a child, I was spanked when I d id something wrong. Being spanked taught me respect and kept me in line. The way my parents disciplined me is an accepted method of punishment back home. It is only today that I understand the importance of what they did. Just as my parents did not have the intention to physically abuse me, the entire concept of spanking too is not directed towards hurting the child, it is more of a lesson taught to make the child realize his/her mistake. Hence, there needs to be a limit to how much parents can spank their kids. If the act is carried out on a daily basis, there are higher chances of the kid behaving inappropriately behind closed doors. At the end of the day these kids get so frustrated of being spanked everyday that they end up doing unnecessary things such as lying, cheating, bullying other people behind their parents backs. Research by Murray Straus, a Co-Director at the Family Research Laboratory at the University of Durham,  indicated that â€Å"frequent spanking (three or more times a week) of children 6 to 9 years old, tracked over a period of two years, increased a child’s antisocial behaviour, measured in activities like cheating, bullying, or lying†. Hence, it is important for the parents to learn which behaviours deserve a spanking. For instance, spilling water, making noise, wetting-pants are normal behaviours all children tend to pick. They do not need to be spanked as these are all age-appropriate behaviours. A key concept of discipline is to identify the behaviour that is typical for the age of the child. Based on the behaviour, parents can then take appropriate actions. For instance, Lisa Berlin, research scientist at the Centre for Child and Family Policy at Duke University says, â€Å"We’re talking about infants and toddlers, and I think that just, cognitively, they just don’t understand enough about right or wrong or punishment to benefit from being spanked,†Ã‚  As Berlin states, it is pointless to spank an infant, however as children grow older and begin to understand the severity of the punishment, a spanking is desirable. Today, there is a common misconception that spanking is a form of child abuse. Some parents are actually afraid to discipline their own children using the same method used for their own upbringing. Who is correct in the notion of right and wrong discipline? Is there such a thing as a correct way to spank your child? In my opinion, there is. So, my objective is to show that there is a fine line between the two terms Spanking and Child abuse. A Cambridge Dictionary states that Child Abuse occurs â€Å"when adults intentionally treat children in a cruel or violent way. On the other hand, Spanking in the same dictionary means â€Å"to hit a child with the hand, usually several times on the bottom as a punishment. † In this way, the line between the two can be drawn where too much spanking results in bruises and scars on the child. Therefore, parents should not spank their children when they are angry themselves as the spank would turn out to be an unintentional smack. When this o ccurs, parents tend to accidently take out their frustration on the child. Primarily, this is when Spanking, a form of discipline, starts drifting towards the entire concept of ‘child abuse’. However, this misconception has led to many unwanted situations where parents have been sent to jail by their own children. In a general conversation with a waiter at IHOP in Charlottesville, I got to know that he spanked his child twice due to confidential reasons and the child sent his dad, Greg, to the court. In this way, mild spanking is an essential tool to bring the child on the right path of success. A pro-spanker, Leeanne, mother to three children says â€Å"I gave a spanking (more like a weak handed swatting) on the butt when my children were small a couple of times†¦. after that, just a warning and a look was all they needed to keep in line, because they knew they didn’t want one. All three of my children have told me that they are ashamed of their generation and each have thanked me, at one point or another for those little spanks. (Again, I don’t mean pain†¦ just attention getting and disapproval of their behaviour). †Ã‚  As claimed by her, I too believe that spanking causes no harm on the child. It is just the way the parent does it. Love your children more than you spank them. At the end of the day, that is all what a child needs in life. Other than that, I also carried out my own survey for this essay where I asked fifteen friends their opinion on spanking. Each of them said that they have been spanked in at least one circumstance. They all agreed that it is proper to discipline in this way. It is only now after coming to UVA and being so successful they have realized the importance of the punishments their parents used to give them. When I asked them at what occasions did they get spanked, one said, â€Å"I have done a lot of silly things in life that my parents have disapproved, they believe that not all negative behaviours require a spanking; but spanking is their number one choice when all other methods of discipline fail. † Life is all about making decisions, taking risks and then finally facing their consequences. Hence, their parents took the risk and landed on the safe end where their children are reaching the pinnacle of success. As stated, spanking shouldn’t be the only form of discipline used on children. Parents need to take into account all the other forms as well to teach their children right from wrong. Parents can inculcate discipline in their child by showing discontent to the unsuitable behaviour of the child. This usually has a lasting effect as they know that if they do it again their parents will be disappointed, which is usually harder to deal with. This type of punishment only gives you more of a guilt feeling and it remains till you are in good terms with your parents again. When parents give that silent treatment, it becomes very hard to live in the same house where parents are not in talking terms with their kids. Scolding is another form which is widely used all over the world. If it becomes an everyday situation then it may lessen the effect on the child. The child may start considering this as a normal act for parents to shout at him/her and will start ignoring them. The aim of the parents to teach the kid a lesson and make sure he/she does not make the same mistake again would fail. However, if scolding is the only process used then parents need to also praise their children when they do something good as well. In this way, scolding and  praising should be balanced so that children understand the entire concept properly. Another very effective form of discipline is ‘Time-Out’. This is mainly used on young children. â€Å"A  time-out  involves temporarily separating a child from an environment where inappropriate behaviour has occurred, and is intended to give an over-excited child time to calm down. †Ã‚  This method can be very effectual if carried out appropriately. Too much of something doesn’t attain the goal it is looking for. Similarly, excessive scolding or use of time-out does not have the same effect on the child as a one or two time would. For example, a child throwing a tantrum can be put in time-out for him/her to calm down. After that, parents need to make sure they kindly explain the kid that whatever he/she did is not acceptable in society. Even in this case, age matters as a one year old cannot be asked to sit and listen to a long lecture as they do not have long attention spans. An American mother stated Once the child gets older and as they start experiencing the real world, parents tend teach them a lesson by withholding privileges. When they reach a certain age i. e. when they are in grade 5-6, they start to differentiate precisely between family and friends. Sometimes as they enter the teenage world, they begin to value friends over family. At this point, parents know that their kids are growing and might go on the wrong path if not taught a lesson at the right time. Hence, some of the techniques such as ‘if they come home later than expected then take away what they love the most’ are used. For example, if you come home late, you will not be allowed to watch TV for two days. This is usually used once the child is old enough to understand. In this way, as they grow older they learn how to make thoughtful decisions. A balanced approach should be used in order to raise the child in the right manner. By ‘balanced’, I mean that parents should spank their children only to a certain extent primarily depending on their age and the type of mistake committed by the child. Spanking along with other forms of discipline should be used in order to make the child realize his/her mistakes in life. How to cite Child Discipline, Papers Child Discipline Free Essays Child abuse is the physical injury of a child inflicted by a parent which ranges from superficial bruises, broken bones, burns, serious internal injuries and in some cases, death (Prevent Child Abuse America). Child abuse is a topic that causes rage in many discussions throughout the country because it is outrageous actions against innocent children. Many parents question whether discipline can become child abuse. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Discipline or any similar topic only for you Order Now Bell Hooks is an educated woman, feminist, and writer who has dedicated her life to teaching people about civil rights that every human being deserves. She wrote an essay in which she addresses her personal view on the way children should not be hit under any circumstances, because it neglects love; according to her, love and abuse cannot coexist. However, it is unfair to claim that a slap on the hand is considered abuse, and that if parents commit this type of action, they do not love their child. There is a huge difference between physical punishment and child abuse. A child needs to learn right from wrong, and when the child’s actions turn out of control, it is acceptable to spank or hit them in the hand. As long as the hitting stays to a minimum degree, physical punishment is not child abuse. â€Å"No one can rightfully claim to be loving when behaving abusively† (Hooks, 29). This is a quote from Hooks’ essay in which she declared that if a parent is hitting their child, then they are showing no love towards the child. I disagree with Hooks because she uses the word abuse in such a negative form throughout her whole essay. What exactly does â€Å"behaving abusively† mean? If a person sees the words, â€Å"behaving abusively† the person might be thinking a child was hit in the face and now the child has a black eye, which is abuse. However, Hooks’ takes the definition of â€Å"behaving abusively† as any type of hitting even if it’s the least amount of pain like a slap on the hand, which is not abuse. Hooks gives the idea that both of these actions are the same, yet they are not. When parents’ are hitting their children and giving them bruises, it is child abuse; when parents’ teach their children a lesson by slapping them on the hand, it is simply discipline. Physical discipline is permitted to a certain level; physical punishment can be a reasonable slap on the hand or a spank. Physical discipline has worked for many parents and it is their choice whether they want to use this type of discipline. Primarily, if parents want to teach their children to behave and not be out of control, they can use the effective ways of physical punishment. Nevertheless, there is a fine line between physical punishment and abuse; parents must know when that fine line ends because hitting could turn into abuse. â€Å"When her son misbehaved she clamped down on his flesh, pinching him until he got the message† (Hooks, 28-29). In this quote Bell hooks tries to manipulate the reader’s emotions. The words â€Å"clamped down on his flesh†, really gives a vulgar image, and she is successful in creating good imagery to give her point of view. At this point I was almost manipulated into believing that any small type of hitting, or in this case, pinching, would be considered child abuse. My emotions were conflicting with my logical interpretation because she uses language that is visual. On the counterpoint, she did not provide a story behind her quote. The reader did not know why the mother was pinching her son. His behavior might have been way out of control that it left the mother with no other choice. I interpret Bell Hooks’ essay as being biased for the obvious reason that she has no children. She claims in her essay that she is â€Å"a second parenting figure†, (Hooks, 32) but there is no doubt that only a parent can really determine when their child might need physical discipline. Hooks might feel like a second parent figure, but she is able to walk away from any situation the child is in, whereas the mother or father has to deal with the problem and cannot walk away and ignore it. One important counterargument that Hooks left out of her essay was evidence from an adult who experienced physical punishment, and did not have any negative effect onto his or her adult life. She only provides sources from adults who experienced child abuse; one example includes famous writer Bob Shelby, who was abused as a child. Hooks’ sources contain only people who dealt with child abuse, not physical discipline, like a slap on the hand. The simple act of hitting or spanking a child does not determine the love parents feel for their child. Growing up I was physically punished by my mother. The physical punishment involved spanking or a slap in the hand or arm; but it was never to the point where I was in so much pain or the hitting left me a bruise. Since I was the age of three, if I misbehaved I would receive some sort of physical punishment. I truly believe the physical punishment helped me because it made me think about my bad actions, and once I was hit, I no longer misbehaved. It taught me to be a better person. I have absolutely no doubt that my parents’ love me and I know they did it for my own good. The fact that I was physically punished as a child does not mean my parents stopped loving me for a second; I never questioned the love I felt from my parents. I do not think the physical punishment I received could be at all considered abuse. I have also had the experience to witness children whom their parents have not enforced physical punishment, and they are out of control. Children who did not receive physical punishment were most likely to misbehave and throw tantrums. These children felt like they could do whatever they please and felt like they were in control of the parent. It is very important that parents do not let their children push them around because the parents need to be in control. Hooks’ main argument is that children are denied their civil rights when parents are hitting them; she claims that parents do not love their children if they are abusing them, in her case abusing them is if a parent slaps them in the hand. She claims that if parents are hitting their children, they are negating love, concluding that love and abuse cannot coexist. I agree that love and child abuse cannot coexist because if parents are constantly hitting their children to the point where it becomes routine and for no reason, then they are negating love towards their children. However, if parents choose to spank their children only when they misbehave, it is a form of discipline and it does not mean that the parents do not love their children. It just means that they love their children enough to want what is best for them by teaching them a lesson. Children are able to learn from their mistakes and they will no longer act the wrong way. The word â€Å"discipline† has different meaning to different parents. In some parts of the world, and in different cultures, it is common for parents to hit their children in various ways. Some parents leave bruises and scars, but if parents take it this far, then they are committing abuse. On the other hand, to some parents discipline could be a simple time out without the need of physical punishment. Time out works for some parents but for others it might not. Parenting is crucial because raising children is very hard; I believe parents are not taking their children’s civil rights when they choose to use a minimal amount of physical punishment when the child needs it. There is a fine line between physical punishment and abuse; however, there is a huge difference. Hitting or spanking is not child abuse; it is a method of discipline that children need to learn when they are growing up. It is unfair to declare that when parents choose to raise their children by using physical punishment, they are negating love. Most parents who hit their children when they misbehave, love their children and are only hitting them to discipline them. Parents do not want their children growing up in the wrong path and making the wrong choices. If the parent lets their child do whatever he or she wants, then the child will feel in control of the parent. When the parent does not enforce punishment, the child will not listen, and this could lead them in the wrong direction. According to Bell hooks, love and abuse cannot coexist. However, it is unjustified to say that a slap on the hand is considered abuse, and that if parents are hitting their children, they are negating love. Ultimately, when parents choose to use physical punishment in order to enforce discipline, they are not denying love; they are simply teaching the difference between right and wrong. How to cite Child Discipline, Essay examples Child Discipline Free Essays GOALS OF EFFECTIVE DISCIPLINE Discipline is the structure that helps the child fit into the real world happily and effectively. It is the foundation for the development of the child’s own self-discipline. Effective and positive discipline is about teaching and guiding children, not just forcing them to obey. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Discipline or any similar topic only for you Order Now As with all other interventions aimed at pointing out unacceptable behavior, the child should always know that the parent loves and supports him or her. Trust between parent and child should be maintained and constantly built upon. Parenting is the task of raising children and providing them with the necessary material and emotional care to further their physical, emotional, cognitive and social development. Disciplining children is one of the most important yet difficult responsibilities of parenting, and there are no shortcuts. The physician must stress that teaching about limits and acceptable behavior takes time and a great deal of energy. The hurried pace of today’s society can be an obstacle to effective discipline. The goal of effective discipline is to foster acceptable and appropriate behaviour in the child and to raise emotionally mature adults. A disciplined person is able to postpone pleasure, is considerate of the needs of others, is assertive without being aggressive or hostile, and can tolerate discomfort when necessary. The foundation of effective discipline is respect. The child should be able to respect the parent’s authority and also the rights of others. Inconsistency in applying discipline will not help a child respect his or her parents. Harsh discipline such as humiliation (verbal abuse, shouting, name-calling) will also make it hard for the child to respect and trust the parent. Thus, effective discipline means discipline applied with mutual respect in a firm, fair, reasonable and consistent way. The goal is to protect the child from danger, help the child learn self-discipline, and develop a healthy conscience and an internal sense of responsibility and control. It should also instill values. One of the major obstacles to achieving these goals is inconsistency, which will confuse any child, regardless of developmental age. It can be particularly hard for parents to be consistent role models. Telling children to â€Å"Do as I say, but not as I do† does not achieve effective discipline. Parental disagreements about child-rearing techniques, as well as cultural differences between parents, often result in inconsistent disciplining methods. The physician needs to be mindful of these challenges and suggest steps that parents can take to resolve these differences (1). It is important that in teaching effective discipline, physicians do not impose their own agendas on the families they counsel. A balanced, objective view should be used to provide resources, and the goal should be to remain objective. This means using principles supported by academic, peer-reviewed literature. This is particularly important when dealing with controversial issues such as disciplinary spanking. MEANINGS: Discipline means obedience to a superior authority. Accepting the norms of the family, society, the commands of elders and obeying them is also discipline. Discipline means accepting punishments for violation. Discipline also means training of mind and character, developing self-control and the habit of obedience. In the entire universe, there is an order and discipline. The stars, the planets, the earth on which we live, the moon and the sun we see, move according to a system of discipline. We can see that plants, insects, birds and animals too observe discipline in their lives, only man who has a thinking mind finds it difficult to observe discipline. Discipline could be divided into two broad categories, external and internal. External discipline is that which is imposed by outside authority. It is often linked with authority and force. Discipline in the army is one such. Soldiers do not have a say in it except implicit obedience. As Tennyson says â€Å"Theirs not to make reply. There’s not to reason why, theirs nut to do and die†. A soldier in a war field cannot ask for reasons. He has to obey commands; otherwise, the war is lost. Our ancient educational system believed in enforcing discipline by force. They used to say, if you spare the rod you will spoil the child. But that view is not correct. It will produce only negative results. That is why discipline has taken a new shape in schools and colleges now. It is call self-discipline. It is discipline by acceptance, not by imposition. We live in a democracy. Democracy is based on the will of majority of its citizens. It has to be accepted and obeyed. Otherwise democracy loses its meaning and leads to anarchy. Family customs and traditions, laws of the society, and moral and spiritual laws of the religion are all to be obeyed. That is discipline. Discipline demands obedience to commands fro leaders, respect for women, devotion to god etc. Though discipline starts at home, there is much more need for it in schools. Schools are nursing places for various virtues and values. Discipline in the classroom, on the playground and elsewhere in the school is all important. Force has no place in student discipline. Teachers are to be first disciplined, so one, who cannot control oneself, cannot control others. Students emulate teachers in all ways. It is more so in the matter of discipline. They observe discipline by acceptance not by force. Some argue that discipline limits freedom and that also kills the man’s initiative. This is a wrong view. Indiscipline cannot bring order of growth. Self-discipline or discipline by acceptance is self-control. One controls his emotions and desires and gives room to listen to other’s points of views. Man has many desires and impulses. If they are allowed free play without discipline, it will end in chaos. Nature and society are best disciplinarians. Violate their laws, and you are in for punishment. Put your finger in fire. It burns, no matter who you are. There we learn discipline by experience. That is why Gandhi has rightly said that discipline is learning in adversity. It is therefore necessary that, if you wish to achieve anything enduring in life, you have to be first disciplined in life. Lack of discipline is like a ship without a rudder. How to cite Child Discipline, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Great Sheep Debate Essay Example For Students

The Great Sheep Debate Essay The Great Sheep DebateMy high school was relatively small. To put it into perspective, I graduated with eighty-six people. In my class there were the usual cliques. There were the smart kids, the athletes, the cheerleaders, the drug users, and the slackers. But somehow I didnt fit into all of this. I wasnt, and still am not, the smartest person in the history of the world. Im way too clumsy to play any sports. I wasnt the right size to be a cheerleader. I wouldnt even consider using drugs, and I certainly am not a slacker. I was just Nikki the girl that no one liked. I just wasnt like them. I dressed differently, and had my own opinion, and that just didnt fly with them. We will write a custom essay on The Great Sheep Debate specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Day in and day out, I saw the struggle. It happened most with the incoming freshman every year. I saw people almost killing themselves with dieting so they could fit the cheerleader mold. I saw some of the most intelligent people not apply themselves, just because its not cool to be smart. I really think that is sad. These people could really have made something of themselves, but instead they chose being cool over having a future. I was teased and mocked for attempting to be an individual. Even one of my teachers told me one day that I only dressed differently so I could get attention. Her saying that really made me think. Is it really so bad to not want to be a conformist sheep? Has the world really come to either being alike or being miserable? I hope not. Ill admit to sometimes wishing I could be like them. But I know that I wouldnt be here now if I had been. As Doris Lessing said, It is the hardest thing in the world to maintain an individual dissident opinion, as a member of a group (334). She also said, the hardest thing in the world is to stand out against ones group of peers (334). I dont exactly find this to be true. High school wasnt exactly the easiest time for me, but I got by. I would have rather gone through it without friends, than to have changed whom I was just to belong. I was relatively happy just being myself. I liked wearing clothes that had color, and I liked for people to notice me. People who change to fit into a mold arent happy as themselves. I think conforming to fit in is on of the worst things a person can do. Im not saying that everyone should have blue hair, but they should at least attempt to have an opinion of their own. Even if youre just speaking up when deciding on a movie that your friends are choosing that you dont want to see. Anywhere is a good place to start. Lessings argument does make some sense. She stated that people look for people like themselves (333-335). That is true; we all have the need to belong to a group that shares our beliefs, whether that is our peer group, or a group we join. I do not, however, think you should change your beliefs to fit into a group. You should let the group come to you, not you to the group. It is true that people respect the rules and regulations of society, and that, in and of itself is conforming to a certain extent. There is, however a difference between following the rules to do what you think is right, and conforming just to go along with the group. For example, if I were to take a class in bird watching, I would do it because I enjoy bird watching, not because my roommate does. A person should do what they feel is right, not what their neighbor does. .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 , .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .postImageUrl , .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 , .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1:hover , .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1:visited , .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1:active { border:0!important; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1:active , .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1 .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ubc96de893d05114c20b6880f4df446e1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Gatsbys Corruptive Nature EssayPhilip Zimbardos The Stanford Prison Experiment was an experiment to see how far a person would go into an act if given a role. Twenty-one volunteers, all college age males, were divided into two groups, the guards and the prisoners. The guards got really mean, and the prisoners took on more of a submissive role. They conformed to what the media portrays as appropriate behavior of guards and prisoners.They had to end the experiment early because the prisoners rioted (363-375). The guards were telling them how to act, that had gotten to them, and they couldnt take it anymore: They the prisoners didnt see it as an experiment. It was real and th ey were fighting to keep their identity (374). The subjects wrote in diaries from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Excerpts of one guards diary are included in Zimbardos article. Prior to the experiment he said that he is a nonaggressive individual (373). As the experiment went on, he began yelling and being very violent with the prisoners:I decided to force-feed him, but he wouldnt eat. I let the food slide down his face. I didnt believe it was me doing it. I hated myself for making him eat but I hated him more for not eating (373-374). He was not happy with the way he acted. He said that he was elated at the end of the experiment. He had conformed, and wasnt happy with the out come. Who really is though? When we conform, we arent making ourselves happy we are only making the group happy.Im sure that if in high school I would have changed myself enough, I could have had friends and something to do on the weekend, but Im also sure that I couldnt have lived with myself knowing that I was not being me. I value the relati onship that I had with my mother, and I know if I had been like them, I wouldnt have been able to have that relationship with her. I had a lot of weekends open for just spending time with my mom, and contrary to popular belief, moms are pretty cool. Now that she has passed on, I wouldnt have traded that time for anything in the world, including friends. I also feel that if I had conformed, I would not have stopped with just changing clothes or opinions. I may have fallen in with the wrong group and ended up getting involved in drinking or maybe even something worse. Having a group mind is a never-ending spiral of not doing what you believe is right. Im glad to have my own opinion and really wish more people would acknowledge that they too have the potential to be great. We have all been given the opportunity to be individuals. Whether or not we take the opportunity and go with it is up to us. The majority of us, sadly, tend to not take it. It all goes back to fitting in, being part of the in crowd. We as a society need to find happiness in our own lives, not siphon it from someone elses. However, until more of us realize that, the odds are for the sheep. Works CitedLessing, Doris. Group Minds. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum.7th edition. Ed Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Longman, 1999. 333-335. Zimbardo, Philip K. The Stanford Prison Experiment. . Writing and Reading Acrossthe Curriculum.7th edition. Ed Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Longman, 1999.363-375.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The 11 ACT Science Strategies You Must Be Using

The 11 ACT Science Strategies You Must Be Using SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The ACT Science section, more than any other, is about strategy over knowledge. Because every graduating high school senior has a varied level of science education, the only way to make a "fair" or "standardized" test is to test very basic concepts. If the ACT Science tested basic concepts in an easy way everyone would get a 36, so instead, the ACT tests these basic concepts in new and confusing ways. In order to get the best score, you need to use a strategy to attack this strange test and practice the strategy on several ACT Science practice tests. For information about practice tests, check out our other article. You only have 35 minutes to answer 40 questions (or 52.5 seconds per question) and each question has the same point value, so you also need a strategy that helps you answer as many questions as possible in the shortest amount of time. In this article, I will cover the basic ACT Science strategy: Knowing the section format and using it to your advantage 1-Save Conflicting Viewpoints for last, Start with Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages Conflicting Viewpoints Strategies 2-Write yourself brief summaries Data Representation and Research Summaries Passage Strategies 3-Do not read the passage on Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages 4-Start with the questions 5-Use every part of the visuals to your advantage 6-Skim only if absolutely necessary 7- Practicing is a key to success 8- Only use real ACT Science Practice Materials 9- Use the real timing when practicing. 10- Review your mistakes, so you improve. 11- Study the material the ACT Science section expects you to know I will provide more information on each below: Knowing the section format and using it to your advantage If you were unfamiliar with the 3 Types of ACT Science Passages, I'd recommend reading that article first. As a brief summary, there are 3 types of passages (7 passages total) used on the test: 3 Data Representation Passages, 5 questions each 3 Research Summaries Passages, 6 questions each 1 Conflicting Viewpoints Passage, 7 questions It is not important for you to be able to differentiate between Data Representation Passages and Research Summaries Passages because the strategy we will use for both is the same. Both of these passages use visuals as the primary way to convey information: there will be graphs, tables, scatterplots, and/or bar graphs. It is important that you can separate the Conflicting Viewpoints Passage from the other two types because the strategy for this passage is very different. It should be pretty simple to identify because the Conflicting Viewpoints Passage has no graphs or tables. Instead, there are two or more scientists/students/theories presented in short paragraphs. The questions ask you about each viewpoint and the differences and similarities between the viewpoints. To answer the questions, you need to read and understand the entire passage; therefore, this passage will take the longest. ACT Science Strategy #1: Save Conflicting Viewpoints for last, Start with Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages As I said, you only have 52.5 seconds per question and each question has the same value. Since Conflicting Viewpoints takes longer, save it for last so it doesn't kill your pace. I will dive into the specific strategy for Conflicting Viewpoints passages next. Conflicting Viewpoints Strategy As I said before, Conflicting Viewpoints passages require you to read the entire passage to answer the questions. The two types of questions with Conflicting Viewpoints Passages are called Understanding Viewpoints Questions and Comparing Viewpoints Questions. To read more in-depth about Conflicting Viewpoints Passages and questions, read our article about Attacking Conflicting Viewpoints Questions. As a brief overview, the passage starts with an introduction and then presents you with the viewpoint of 2 or more scientists/students/theories. Understanding viewpoints questions require you to understand what each scientist/student/theory is arguing. Comparing viewpoints questions require you to point out the similarities and differences of the viewpoints. When attacking conflicting viewpoints passage, start by reading the passage in its entirety (including the introduction). ACT Science Strategy #2: Write yourself brief mini-summaries as you read each viewpoint. Writing summaries will help you remember what each scientist/student/theory argued and will help you when answering the question. These summaries should be no more than 3-4 words, more than that and you are taking too much time. Here is an example from a real ACT Science practice test: This way when you are asked a question such as: Which of the following findings support Scientist 2? A. A Scientist confirmed the fragments were from an asteroidB. A Scientist confirmed the fragments were from a cometC. A Scientist determined nothing struck the earth.D. A Scientist found out a bomb exploded. Obviously, this may be easier than other ACT Science questions, but the methodology is the same. Look back at your summary for Scientist 2. Our summary says, "Pro-Asteroid." That matches A, so A is the correct answer. Writing summaries saves you time that you would spend re-reading paragraphs and helps you get to the correct answer quicker. The strategy is very different for the other 2 passages: Data Representation and Research Summaries Strategies As I said before, distinguishing between these two passages is not important. If you would like to know the difference, it is that Data Representation Passages discusses experiments (like how varying amounts of enzyme concentrate changes reaction time) whereas Research Summaries Passages discuss summaries where something is observed (like the beak depth of finches in the wild). Knowing this difference does not help you answer questions. Both of these passages have a brief introduction, a few paragraphs (separated by experiment 1/2/3 or student 1/2/3) and visuals (graphs, tables, scatterplots, bar graphs, etc.). Almost all of the questions require reading the visuals to answer the question. ACT Science Strategy #3: Don't Read the Passage on Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages It is a waste of your time to read these passages in their entirety. As I just said, to answer most of the questions, you just need to read the visuals, so: ACT Science Strategy #4: Start With the Questions Skip reading and go right to the questions. Then, look back at the corresponding visual(s) to try to answer the question. ACT Science Strategy #5: Use Every Part of the Visuals to Your Advantage The visuals contain the majority of the answers to the questions, so you need to become an expert at reading visuals and pulling tons of information out of a single visual. Check out our article on Factual Questions: How to Read Graphs, Visuals and Data for more information, but I will give a brief overview of how to get the most out of a visual. Sometimes, you will be looking at weird graphs like this one: Yes, this is from a real ACT Science practice test. Here is the accompanying question: Let's break it down. The question is asking you which of the answer choices has the highest intensity at a given frequency. Whenever a question states "at a given X," it means across all values of X. In other words, this question is asking you to pick the answer choice with the highest intensity across all frequencies. There is a lot of information in the graph above, but the answer choices only require us to consider four conditions: in air or in water, and at S of 100% or at 10^-8%. Looking at the graph above, you may have no idea where to begin. Start by finding the locations of S 100% and S 10^-8% (it is completely fine that you don't understand what these mean). I don't even think the passage helped you understand what these mean. I don't know what they mean, but I can still answer the question correctly. You see S 10^-8% is represented by the two vertical lines at the far left of the graph. S 100% is represented by the two vertical lines at the far right of the graph. Now, you need to locate intensity, since the question asked specifically which has the highest intensity. Intensity is measured on the x-axis. Both lines for S 10^-8 % have a measured intensity between -20 and 0 db. Both lines for S 100% have a measured intensity between 180 and 220 db. The S 100% are at a higher intensity, so we can eliminate both S 10^-8% answer choices, G and J. Now, to decide between F and H, we need to figure out whether the intensity was greater in water or air. To do this, we need to distinguish which S 100% line represents water and which one represents air. According to the key, the small dotted line represents water, and the thicker line represents air. The small dotted line is just to the right of the thicker line, so it is at a higher intensity than the thicker line. S 100% in water has an intensity of approximately 205 db and S 100% in air has an intensity of approximately 195 db, so the answer is F. To get the most out of visuals, you need to be scanning every axis, curve, and key. Pinpoint just what you need to answer the question and ignore what is not useful to you. Occasionally the visual alone will not be enough to answer the question, if you need more information, use our next strategy: ACT Science Strategy #6: Skim Only If Absolutely Necessary Usually, you don't need to read, as I just showed you in the addressing the last question. You will probably only need to read/skim for 2 out of 5 or 6 questions per passage. Save the question(s) that you can't answer with visuals alone for the end of the passage. Let's check out an ACT Science practice question where you need to skim: In order to the answer this question, you need to start by looking at Figure 2 for Experiment 2. At 0.2 mL of titrant added, the color was yellow. At 1.8 mL of titrant added, the color was blue, so you can eliminate B and D. However, you don't know what the difference between yellow and blue means in terms of pH, so you need to skim. You only need this sentence from the very end of the introduction to find the final answer. So, according to the passage, blue means greater pH than yellow, so the answer is A. You can now see how skimming can quickly lead you to the correct answer. Never ever take the time to read the entire passage. It is a waste of your valuable, precious, limited time. Just skim for key terms and you will get to the answer quicker. ACT Science Strategy #7: Practicing Is the Key to Success. I recommend taking a minimum of 7 practice tests. This test is so unique that during your first 2-3 practice tests you will just be getting used to the format. You need the additional 4-5 tests to solidify using all of the above strategies. I improved 5 points from my first ACT Science test to my last; if you want to see that kind of improvement or better, you need to put in the time. Make sure you have the best study materials available. ACT Science Strategy #8: Only Use Real ACT Science Practice Materials. The ACT Science section is so different from other tests that any old science study material will not cut it. As I said before, the ACT Science section is unique in that it tests basic science skills in new and confusing ways. Check out our article on where to find ACT Science practice materials (most of which is free!) and which practice materials to avoid. When studying, you also need to make sure you are paying attention to timing. ACT Science Strategy #9: Use the Real Timing When Practicing. One of the biggest challenges of the ACT Science section is time management. My problem when I first took the ACT Science section was that I couldn't finish the thing. With all of the above strategies, you should be able to finish in time. However, if you do not practice the timing, you will not finish in time. Practice completing the entire section in 35 minutes, and try to limit yourself to 5 minutes per passage, so you keep yourself on track. Use this timing on every practice test, so that the fast pace becomes second nature to you. After taking a practice test, you need to review. ACT Science Strategy #10: Review Your Mistakes, So You Improve. The only way to get better is with practice and reviewing your mistakes. Not reviewing your mistakes is like a professional football team losing a game 60-0 and just moving on to the next one without a post-game review. It would never happen, and it should never happen for you. Reviewing your mistakes allows you to process where you went wrong and make sure it doesn't happen again. For help in how to review your mistakes, check out our articles on The Best Way to Study and Practice for ACT Science and The 9 Reasons You Miss ACT Science Questions. Practice tests and review will not get you all the way to a 36. ACT Science Strategy #11: Study the Material the ACT Science Section Expects You to Know. On every ACT Science section, there are about 4 questions that you cannot answer correctly without outside knowledge. I wrote an entire article dedicated to these questions: The Only Actual Science You Have to Know for ACT Science. There are 13 topics that the ACT Science section expects you to know (all of them are covered in the other article). Make flashcards for these topics and study them until you know them cold. The ACT Science section just expects you to have basic knowledge of these topics, so you don't need to study in-depth. Also, if you are aiming for a 30 or below on the ACT Science section, this step is not as important, as there are only 4 outside knowledge questions per test. Recap Apply these strategies to your ACT Science practice, and you'll be on your way to a 36 on the ACT Science section: #1: Save Conflicting Viewpoints for last. Start with Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages. #2: Write yourself brief mini-summaries for Conflicting Viewpoints Passages. #3: Do not read the passage on Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages. #4: For Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages, start with the questions. #5: For Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages, use every part of the visuals to your advantage. #6: For Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages, skim only if absolutely necessary. #7: Practicing is the key to success. #8: For practice, only use real ACT Science Materials. #9: For practice, use the real timing. #10: For practice, review your mistakes, so you improve. #11: Study the material the ACT Science section expects you to know. What's Next? For future ACT Science study, I recommend checking out our other articles on the 3 Types of ACT Science passages to learn more about the other types of questions asked on the ACT Science section, factual questions to learn more about this question type and to practice your visual reading skills, and the best way to study and practice for ACT Science to make the most out of your limited study time. Looking for help on the other sections? Check out our guides to ACT Math, ACT English, ACT Reading, and ACT Writing. Like this article? Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Science lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: