Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The 11 ACT Science Strategies You Must Be Using SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The ACT Science section, more than any other, is about strategy over knowledge. Because every graduating high school senior has a varied level of science education, the only way to make a "fair" or "standardized" test is to test very basic concepts. If the ACT Science tested basic concepts in an easy way everyone would get a 36, so instead, the ACT tests these basic concepts in new and confusing ways. In order to get the best score, you need to use a strategy to attack this strange test and practice the strategy on several ACT Science practice tests. For information about practice tests, check out our other article. You only have 35 minutes to answer 40 questions (or 52.5 seconds per question) and each question has the same point value, so you also need a strategy that helps you answer as many questions as possible in the shortest amount of time. In this article, I will cover the basic ACT Science strategy: Knowing the section format and using it to your advantage 1-Save Conflicting Viewpoints for last, Start with Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages Conflicting Viewpoints Strategies 2-Write yourself brief summaries Data Representation and Research Summaries Passage Strategies 3-Do not read the passage on Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages 4-Start with the questions 5-Use every part of the visuals to your advantage 6-Skim only if absolutely necessary 7- Practicing is a key to success 8- Only use real ACT Science Practice Materials 9- Use the real timing when practicing. 10- Review your mistakes, so you improve. 11- Study the material the ACT Science section expects you to know I will provide more information on each below: Knowing the section format and using it to your advantage If you were unfamiliar with the 3 Types of ACT Science Passages, I'd recommend reading that article first. As a brief summary, there are 3 types of passages (7 passages total) used on the test: 3 Data Representation Passages, 5 questions each 3 Research Summaries Passages, 6 questions each 1 Conflicting Viewpoints Passage, 7 questions It is not important for you to be able to differentiate between Data Representation Passages and Research Summaries Passages because the strategy we will use for both is the same. Both of these passages use visuals as the primary way to convey information: there will be graphs, tables, scatterplots, and/or bar graphs. It is important that you can separate the Conflicting Viewpoints Passage from the other two types because the strategy for this passage is very different. It should be pretty simple to identify because the Conflicting Viewpoints Passage has no graphs or tables. Instead, there are two or more scientists/students/theories presented in short paragraphs. The questions ask you about each viewpoint and the differences and similarities between the viewpoints. To answer the questions, you need to read and understand the entire passage; therefore, this passage will take the longest. ACT Science Strategy #1: Save Conflicting Viewpoints for last, Start with Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages As I said, you only have 52.5 seconds per question and each question has the same value. Since Conflicting Viewpoints takes longer, save it for last so it doesn't kill your pace. I will dive into the specific strategy for Conflicting Viewpoints passages next. Conflicting Viewpoints Strategy As I said before, Conflicting Viewpoints passages require you to read the entire passage to answer the questions. The two types of questions with Conflicting Viewpoints Passages are called Understanding Viewpoints Questions and Comparing Viewpoints Questions. To read more in-depth about Conflicting Viewpoints Passages and questions, read our article about Attacking Conflicting Viewpoints Questions. As a brief overview, the passage starts with an introduction and then presents you with the viewpoint of 2 or more scientists/students/theories. Understanding viewpoints questions require you to understand what each scientist/student/theory is arguing. Comparing viewpoints questions require you to point out the similarities and differences of the viewpoints. When attacking conflicting viewpoints passage, start by reading the passage in its entirety (including the introduction). ACT Science Strategy #2: Write yourself brief mini-summaries as you read each viewpoint. Writing summaries will help you remember what each scientist/student/theory argued and will help you when answering the question. These summaries should be no more than 3-4 words, more than that and you are taking too much time. Here is an example from a real ACT Science practice test: This way when you are asked a question such as: Which of the following findings support Scientist 2? A. A Scientist confirmed the fragments were from an asteroidB. A Scientist confirmed the fragments were from a cometC. A Scientist determined nothing struck the earth.D. A Scientist found out a bomb exploded. Obviously, this may be easier than other ACT Science questions, but the methodology is the same. Look back at your summary for Scientist 2. Our summary says, "Pro-Asteroid." That matches A, so A is the correct answer. Writing summaries saves you time that you would spend re-reading paragraphs and helps you get to the correct answer quicker. The strategy is very different for the other 2 passages: Data Representation and Research Summaries Strategies As I said before, distinguishing between these two passages is not important. If you would like to know the difference, it is that Data Representation Passages discusses experiments (like how varying amounts of enzyme concentrate changes reaction time) whereas Research Summaries Passages discuss summaries where something is observed (like the beak depth of finches in the wild). Knowing this difference does not help you answer questions. Both of these passages have a brief introduction, a few paragraphs (separated by experiment 1/2/3 or student 1/2/3) and visuals (graphs, tables, scatterplots, bar graphs, etc.). Almost all of the questions require reading the visuals to answer the question. ACT Science Strategy #3: Don't Read the Passage on Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages It is a waste of your time to read these passages in their entirety. As I just said, to answer most of the questions, you just need to read the visuals, so: ACT Science Strategy #4: Start With the Questions Skip reading and go right to the questions. Then, look back at the corresponding visual(s) to try to answer the question. ACT Science Strategy #5: Use Every Part of the Visuals to Your Advantage The visuals contain the majority of the answers to the questions, so you need to become an expert at reading visuals and pulling tons of information out of a single visual. Check out our article on Factual Questions: How to Read Graphs, Visuals and Data for more information, but I will give a brief overview of how to get the most out of a visual. Sometimes, you will be looking at weird graphs like this one: Yes, this is from a real ACT Science practice test. Here is the accompanying question: Let's break it down. The question is asking you which of the answer choices has the highest intensity at a given frequency. Whenever a question states "at a given X," it means across all values of X. In other words, this question is asking you to pick the answer choice with the highest intensity across all frequencies. There is a lot of information in the graph above, but the answer choices only require us to consider four conditions: in air or in water, and at S of 100% or at 10^-8%. Looking at the graph above, you may have no idea where to begin. Start by finding the locations of S 100% and S 10^-8% (it is completely fine that you don't understand what these mean). I don't even think the passage helped you understand what these mean. I don't know what they mean, but I can still answer the question correctly. You see S 10^-8% is represented by the two vertical lines at the far left of the graph. S 100% is represented by the two vertical lines at the far right of the graph. Now, you need to locate intensity, since the question asked specifically which has the highest intensity. Intensity is measured on the x-axis. Both lines for S 10^-8 % have a measured intensity between -20 and 0 db. Both lines for S 100% have a measured intensity between 180 and 220 db. The S 100% are at a higher intensity, so we can eliminate both S 10^-8% answer choices, G and J. Now, to decide between F and H, we need to figure out whether the intensity was greater in water or air. To do this, we need to distinguish which S 100% line represents water and which one represents air. According to the key, the small dotted line represents water, and the thicker line represents air. The small dotted line is just to the right of the thicker line, so it is at a higher intensity than the thicker line. S 100% in water has an intensity of approximately 205 db and S 100% in air has an intensity of approximately 195 db, so the answer is F. To get the most out of visuals, you need to be scanning every axis, curve, and key. Pinpoint just what you need to answer the question and ignore what is not useful to you. Occasionally the visual alone will not be enough to answer the question, if you need more information, use our next strategy: ACT Science Strategy #6: Skim Only If Absolutely Necessary Usually, you don't need to read, as I just showed you in the addressing the last question. You will probably only need to read/skim for 2 out of 5 or 6 questions per passage. Save the question(s) that you can't answer with visuals alone for the end of the passage. Let's check out an ACT Science practice question where you need to skim: In order to the answer this question, you need to start by looking at Figure 2 for Experiment 2. At 0.2 mL of titrant added, the color was yellow. At 1.8 mL of titrant added, the color was blue, so you can eliminate B and D. However, you don't know what the difference between yellow and blue means in terms of pH, so you need to skim. You only need this sentence from the very end of the introduction to find the final answer. So, according to the passage, blue means greater pH than yellow, so the answer is A. You can now see how skimming can quickly lead you to the correct answer. Never ever take the time to read the entire passage. It is a waste of your valuable, precious, limited time. Just skim for key terms and you will get to the answer quicker. ACT Science Strategy #7: Practicing Is the Key to Success. I recommend taking a minimum of 7 practice tests. This test is so unique that during your first 2-3 practice tests you will just be getting used to the format. You need the additional 4-5 tests to solidify using all of the above strategies. I improved 5 points from my first ACT Science test to my last; if you want to see that kind of improvement or better, you need to put in the time. Make sure you have the best study materials available. ACT Science Strategy #8: Only Use Real ACT Science Practice Materials. The ACT Science section is so different from other tests that any old science study material will not cut it. As I said before, the ACT Science section is unique in that it tests basic science skills in new and confusing ways. Check out our article on where to find ACT Science practice materials (most of which is free!) and which practice materials to avoid. When studying, you also need to make sure you are paying attention to timing. ACT Science Strategy #9: Use the Real Timing When Practicing. One of the biggest challenges of the ACT Science section is time management. My problem when I first took the ACT Science section was that I couldn't finish the thing. With all of the above strategies, you should be able to finish in time. However, if you do not practice the timing, you will not finish in time. Practice completing the entire section in 35 minutes, and try to limit yourself to 5 minutes per passage, so you keep yourself on track. Use this timing on every practice test, so that the fast pace becomes second nature to you. After taking a practice test, you need to review. ACT Science Strategy #10: Review Your Mistakes, So You Improve. The only way to get better is with practice and reviewing your mistakes. Not reviewing your mistakes is like a professional football team losing a game 60-0 and just moving on to the next one without a post-game review. It would never happen, and it should never happen for you. Reviewing your mistakes allows you to process where you went wrong and make sure it doesn't happen again. For help in how to review your mistakes, check out our articles on The Best Way to Study and Practice for ACT Science and The 9 Reasons You Miss ACT Science Questions. Practice tests and review will not get you all the way to a 36. ACT Science Strategy #11: Study the Material the ACT Science Section Expects You to Know. On every ACT Science section, there are about 4 questions that you cannot answer correctly without outside knowledge. I wrote an entire article dedicated to these questions: The Only Actual Science You Have to Know for ACT Science. There are 13 topics that the ACT Science section expects you to know (all of them are covered in the other article). Make flashcards for these topics and study them until you know them cold. The ACT Science section just expects you to have basic knowledge of these topics, so you don't need to study in-depth. Also, if you are aiming for a 30 or below on the ACT Science section, this step is not as important, as there are only 4 outside knowledge questions per test. Recap Apply these strategies to your ACT Science practice, and you'll be on your way to a 36 on the ACT Science section: #1: Save Conflicting Viewpoints for last. Start with Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages. #2: Write yourself brief mini-summaries for Conflicting Viewpoints Passages. #3: Do not read the passage on Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages. #4: For Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages, start with the questions. #5: For Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages, use every part of the visuals to your advantage. #6: For Data Representation and Research Summaries Passages, skim only if absolutely necessary. #7: Practicing is the key to success. #8: For practice, only use real ACT Science Materials. #9: For practice, use the real timing. #10: For practice, review your mistakes, so you improve. #11: Study the material the ACT Science section expects you to know. What's Next? For future ACT Science study, I recommend checking out our other articles on the 3 Types of ACT Science passages to learn more about the other types of questions asked on the ACT Science section, factual questions to learn more about this question type and to practice your visual reading skills, and the best way to study and practice for ACT Science to make the most out of your limited study time. Looking for help on the other sections? Check out our guides to ACT Math, ACT English, ACT Reading, and ACT Writing. Like this article? Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Science lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Everything You Need to Know About Native Advertising (19 Examples) WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s a marketerÃ¢â¬â¢s dream? (Besides unlimited budgetsÃ and seamless collaborationÃ¢â¬ ¦) To Ã¢â¬Å"sellÃ¢â¬ to people without them feeling sold to. In a perfect world, we marketers could expose our target audiences to valuable content that genuinely interests them AND raises awareness for the products weÃ¢â¬â¢re promoting. This is exactly what native advertisingÃ aims to solve. Problem isÃ¢â¬ ¦ Native advertising can leave your audience feeling a little duped and/or betrayed. Here they are reading what they thoughtÃ was an innocent how-to blog post, only to find that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re being fed advertising. That bad taste left in their mouth can backfire, leaving marketers worse off than if they had left well enough alone. That said, however, when done right, native advertising can have incredible ROI. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to start dabbling in native advertising, this post is for you. From top-to-bottom, this post covers everything you need to know Ã¢â¬â from tools to examples and everything in between. Everything you need to know about #nativeadvertising wrapped up into one post.Download This Best Practice Native Advertising Guide Before jumping into native advertising head first, download this best practice guide. It covers all the things you need to do before you launch a native ad campaign. Download it here, then read on to figure how native can help your business grow. Types of Native Ads In-feed Advertisements In-feed Social Ads Paid Search Advertisements Recommended Content Promoted Listings Custom Content Types Sponsored or Branded Content (a.k.a advertorial) Product Placement What is Native Advertising? Native Advertising is a little nebulous to defineÃ¢â¬ ¦ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s one of those things that you know it when you see it. Different experts have different opinions about how native advertising is defined. For instance, Neil PatelÃ describes native advertising as, Ã¢â¬Å"advertising that is so tightly interwoven within the site that customers canÃ¢â¬â¢t tell that itÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising.Ã¢â¬ Social platforms like LinkedInÃ andÃ FacebookÃ make the claim that in-stream social ads constitute native advertising. The Native Advertising InstituteÃ disagrees stating, Ã¢â¬Å"native advertising needs to be valuable content of a non-interruptive nature Ã¢â¬â which is typically not the case with in-stream advertising.Ã¢â¬ They define native advertising as, Ã¢â¬Å"paid advertising where the ad matches the form, feel and function of the content of the media on which it appears.Ã¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clear thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a little disagreement surrounding what actually constitutes a native ad. This post takes an inclusive approachÃ¢â¬ ¦ The more examples the better, amirite? What actually constitutes native advertising? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not as simple as you might thinkÃ¢â¬ ¦Content Marketing vs Native Advertising You might be thinking that native advertising sounds a lot like content marketingÃ¢â¬ ¦ And youÃ¢â¬â¢d be rightÃ¢â¬ ¦ it does. BUT there are some important differences. Native advertising typically: Is a way of distributing content. Is present on a domain other than your own. Will have a label stating Ã¢â¬Å"adÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"sponsoredÃ¢â¬ . Appears to provide the reader value, but is secondary to selling the product. Is Pay to Play. The content is only valuable if the product is purchased. Example:Ã ASOSÃ paid content on Refinery29 Content marketing typically: Provides valuable knowledge to raise brand awareness. Is a long-term strategy that nurtures leads as them move down the sales funnel. Includes assets like white papers, blogs, webinars and videos. Is hosted on owned media channels. The content is valuable in and of itself. Example:Ã ASOS Content Marketing Native Advertising vs. Content Marketing Should You Invest in Content Marketing or Native Advertising? The answer isÃ¢â¬ ¦ It depends on your goals, timeframe, and budget. Content marketing tends to be a long-term strategy that has lower monetary costs, but a higher time investment on the part of your marketing team. Success also takes longer with content marketing as it requires a consistent publishing cadenceÃ¢â¬ ¦ BUT... Ã¢â¬ ¦ itÃ¢â¬â¢s more beneficial to the company in the long-term since the content assets are owned and built on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s own site.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Compare Tesco and Sainsbury - Coursework Example The firm paid an extra Ã £0.04 in comparison with the previous year. Sainsbury had a dividend per share in 2013 of Ã £16.7, a figure that is Ã £0.6 higher than in 2012. Overall Sainsbury paid higher dividends than Tesco. TescoÃ¢â¬â¢s dividend cover was 0.10 and 2.38 in 2013 and 2012 respectively. Dividend coverage indicates the capacity of an organization to pay dividends out of profit attributable to shareholders (Accounting-simplified, 2013). Sainsbury had dividend coverage of 1.95 and 1.99 in 2013 and 2012. The dividend coverage of Sainsbury was better than Tesco in 2013, but lower in 2012. The dividend yield ratio shows the return on terms of cash dividends being provided by the stock. Tesco dividend yield ratio was superior to Sainsbury both in 2013 and 2012. The price-earnings ratio is an important indicator of comparative value in which an investor is better off buying a stock with low price-earnings ratio than high price-earnings ratio (Ft). Both the price-earnings ratio results of Tesco in 2013 and 2012 were lowered than Sainsbury, thus Tesco performed better than Sainsbury in this metric. The book value per share measures the amount that would be distributed to shareholders if all assets were sold at their balance sheet carrying amounts and if all creditors were paid off (Garrison, et al. 2003). Since a high value is the preferable output Tesco performed better than Sainsbury in this ratio. The market to book ratio of Sainsbury is much higher than Tesco on both years because its stock is valued higher in the
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Originality about art - Essay Example nalyzed in terms of their inspirations, styles, and techniques that they have applied to their works; works of which have contributed to the development of Contemporary art and establish the originality with their respective techniques. The list of contemporary artists includes Jackson Pollock, Willem De Kooning and Andy Warhol. Lastly, this paper will use Jason GaigerÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Frameworks for Modern Art (Art of the Twentieth Century) as its primary basis. Supplementary sources for this paper will be cited accordingly. Upon the onset of the Modern Period, Jackson Pollock is one of those who had staged a significant feat in art development. Pollock, considered as one of the greatest contemporary painters in American art history, was part of a period where the Modernist Movement of 1920 was slowly transformed into the Post-Modernist Movement of Contemporary art history. In the New World, Pollock was known as an important member of a group of artists called the New York School. The New York School, more of a unified and collective artistic idea rather than a concrete institution, was popularly known as the Abstract Expressionists (Getlein 497). It was in this influence that Pollock acquired his unique style unto his works. His art established a new kind of visual that many had not seen before. In line with the Abstract Expressionists, the artist derived a direct influence from Surrealism. His technique showcased automatism and focused on the aesthetic powers of the unconscious. Being a painter of the mentioned genre, Pollock always exhibited large scale works in the literal sense. He used huge canvass sizes Ã¢â¬â this was to take his audience into the very essence of his paintings. The emphasis on huge painting canvasses is an essential part for Abstract Expressionists in order to highlight the effect of the entire piece (Getlein 497). The bizarre characteristics of the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s works bring out the very sense of post-modernism in his style. The perfection of his
Friday, January 24, 2020
The Luminescence of Black Light Black Light. What is it? It is a portion of the Ultra-Violet Spectrum that is invisible to our eyes. We can not distinguish it. However, when this radiation impinges on certain materials visible light is emitted and this is known as "fluorescence." Fluorescence is visible to the human eye, in that it makes an object appear to "glow in the dark." There are several sources of ultra-violet light. These sources are: the sun, carbon arcs, mercury arcs, and black lights. In most cases, the production of ultra-violet light creates a reasonable amount of heat. Many materials exhibit the peculiar characteristic of giving off light or radiant energy when ultra-violet light is allowed to fall upon them. This is called luminescence. In most cases, the wave length of the light radiated is longer than that of the ultra-violet excitation but a few exceptions have been found. The quantum theory attempts to explain this property by contending that a certain outside excitation causes an electron to jump from one orbit to another. It is then in an unstable environment causing it to fall back into its original orbit. This process releases energy, and if it is in the visible part of the spectrum, we have a transient light phenomenon. Ultra-violet light is an exciting agent which causes luminescence to occur. There are many materials which exhibit fluorescent characteristics. Many of which are even organic. Teeth, eyes, some portions of the skin, and even blood exhibit fluorescent qualities. Naturally occurring minerals such as: agate, calcite, chalcedony, curtisite, fluorite, gypsum, hackmanite, halite, opal scheelite, and willemite, also have similar characteristics. These materials can be used in industries. The radiance of ultraviolet light is measured in units called "Angstrom." The intensity of ultraviolet fluorescence is the greatest between the 5000 and 6000 range. This being the range between the green and yellow hues. Ultra violet light is not readily visible. It is not visible because certain materials reflect it. Ultra-violet light is made visible due to the fact that it causes a reaction at the atomic level. When it strikes the atom, some of the electrons are sent into other orbits.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
The reading week provided many new ideas and one of those was the gifted and talented, creative. Learning about children and youth with these extraordinary abilities of; elaboration, transformation and visualization. Sternberg, states in the reading that, Ã¢â¬Å"Individuals can be talented and may display extraordinary skills in mathematics, sports, music, or other performance areas. Ã¢â¬ I have worked with students that display these extraordinary abilities and many are also gifted with a high intelligence quotient. But, many also have no social abilities. They have no idea how to make friends or how to talk to their peers. They struggle with social interactions and boundaries. There are some exceptions and it is always a pleasant surprise to experience these exceptions. In another part of the reading, they talked about the mental age of a student. This phrase was new for me. A studentÃ¢â¬â¢s mental age is based on their intellectual abilities. In the reading, J. P. Guilford saw intelligence as Ã¢â¬Å"a diverse range of intellectual and creative abilitiesÃ¢â¬ . This concept is very powerful because of its views on intelligence as much broader. There are many who have contributed to the definitions of giftedness. The definitions and concepts of giftedness appears to have an explanation that serves a purpose of influence; what the student is qualified for, the amount of funding and training for educators. Ã¢â¬Å"This is not the universally accepted definition of giftedness? Ã¢â¬ (Clark, 2008). Characteristics of giftedness are limited and are an inadequate sample of various ethnic and cultural groups, so the studies do not represent this group as a whole. Giftedness can come from many diverse sectors. The origin of giftedness has a lot of controversy. Geneticists determined that giftedness is heredity and can have environmental influences, but environmentalists allege otherwise. Plomin and Price (2003) captured it best when they said Ã¢â¬Å"it may well be more appropriate to think about general cognitive ability as an appetite, rather than the aptitude. It appears assessments like testing done today are being used with children for whom they were designed and children, who were once excluded, are now being included. I feel when children are included good things are bound to happen. How to use this information in the classroom is to provide students with the right type of testing. The correct testing will help discover the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities, abilities that would no rmally not be evident in everyday classroom performances.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
American Apparel SWOT Analysis Marketing 304 Section 12382 Group# 5 Nancy Alonzo Yavon Irving Salvador Bustos Cory Lashinsky American Apparel is a vertically integrated clothing manufacturer, wholesaler, and retailer. AAI is best known for making basic, solid color T-shirts and undergarments. They have expanded into dresses, denim, bedding, pants, and accessories for men, women, children, babies, and dogs. Their long-term goal it to become the #1 destination for basic apparel Ã¢â¬â the first name that consumers think of for t-shirts, sweatpants, underwear, socks, etc. What sets American Apparel apart from other clothing companies is that every aspect of their production takes place in the center of Los Angeles, California,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Fruit of the Loom, Hanes, and GildansÃ¢â¬â¢ weaknesses include not actively cooperating with WRC (workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights consortium) investigations, and giving incorrect severance pay to laid off workers. Other weaknesses include the employment of sweatshop workers and the exportation of employment opportunities to other countries. As a vertically integrated company, they manufacture, wholesale, and retail their own clothing line. They independently own and operate over 280 retail stores in 20 countries. American Apparel sells directly to its customers through their AmericanApparel.net website. The site has an online inventory of over 250,000 items and receives 1.5 million visitors per month. Online sales grew from $13.3 million in 2006 to roughly 40 million in 2009. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s site also runs on the Yahoo Stores platform and is included in the Internet Retailer 500 index. They also sell through an eBay store. They sell wholesale under the American Heavy label. American Apparel is one of the largest wholesalers in the country. American Apparel shirts are used as band merchandise and concert t-shirts for the bands, among many others. It was reported in 2007, that their retail distribution channel accounted for 55% of sales; wholesale for 39%; and online for 6%. Some of the retail stores are underperforming and may require closing. American